Gender by Judith Baxter

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Definition of Applied Linguistics ( Revision )

Heni Indriana

2201410036

Monday, 101-102

1. Applied linguistics is an area of work that deals with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education; and it is not merely the application of linguistic knowledge to such settings but is a semi autonomous and interdisciplinary . . . domain of work that draws on but is not dependent on areas such as sociology, education, anthropology, cultural studies, and psychology.”

            (Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

2. “Applied linguistics began life in the 1950s as a postgraduate qualification. Its initial target, largely language teaching, has always been practical, policy-oriented. Its preparation at postgraduate level has been multidisciplinary and, as in mathematics, there is a continuing tension between pure (general, theoretical) linguistics and applied linguistics. It does not expect its conclusions to be buttressed with certainty (and it is unclear whether theoretical linguistics or any other social science can expect that, either). For applied linguistics, there is no finality: the problems such as how to assess language proficiency, what is the optimum age to begin a second language, what distinguishes native and non-native speakers, how we can treat memory loss, these problems may find local and temporary solutions but the problems recur. No doubt, once again, the same may be said of theoretical linguistics: whether all grammars are fundamentally one grammar; what the relation is between the sign and the referent; answers are partial, never final the problems remain.”

(Alan Davies, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory, 2nd ed. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2007)

The term ‘applied linguistics’ refers to a broad range of activities which involve solving some language-related problem or addressing some language-related concern.

G. Richard Tucker.(n.d).Applied Linguistic. Retrieved on 17th March from http://lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-applied.cfm

3. Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use. It embraces contexts in which people use and learn languages and is a platform for systematically addressing problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations. Applied linguistics draws on a range of disciplines, including linguistics. In consequence, applied linguistics has applications in several areas of language study, including language learning and teaching, the psychology of language processing, discourse analysis, stylistics, corpus analysis, literacy studies and language planning and policies.

Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved on 17th March from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

4. Applied linguistics is an attempt to provide a theoretical basis for the activities of language teaching

Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Weber, H. (1985) Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics, London: Longman

5. One answer to this question is that it is the study of language in order to address real-world concerns. Another is that it is the study of language, and language-related topics, in specified situations. The real-world concerns include language learning and teaching but also other issues such as professional communication, literacies, translation practices, language and legal or health issues, and many more. Applied linguistics is practically-oriented, but it is also theory driven and interdisciplinary. Models of how languages are learned and stored, for example, are ‘applied linguistics’, as are descriptions of individual language varieties that prioritise actual and contextualised language use.

Susan Hunston.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved on 17th March from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

6. Applied linguistics is a broadly interdisciplinary field concerned with promoting our understanding of the role language plays in human life. At its centre are theoretical and empirical investigations of real-world issues in which lang uage plays a leading role. Applied linguistics focuses on the relationship between theory and practice, using the insights gained from the theory-practice interface for solving language-related problems in a principled way.

Juliane House.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved on 17th March from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

7. “Applied linguistics is any attempt to work with language in a critical and reflective way, with some ultimate practical goal in mind that includes (amongst other things): deliberately trying to learn (or teach) a foreign language or to develop your ability in your native language: overcoming a language impairment; translating from one language to another: editing a piece of writing in a linguistically thoughtful way, and doing any research or developing any ideas or tools which aim to help people do these sorts of things” (Phil Durrant,2009)

Taken from Phil Durrant. 2009. Retrieved on 17th March 2013 from http://www.cambridge.org/elt

 8. It is belief that linguistics can offer insights and ways forward in the resolution of problems related to language in a wide variety of contexts that underlies the very existence of the discipline usually called applied linguistics. (McCarty, 2001, 1)

McCarthy, Michael. 2001. Issues in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

 9. “Applications of linguistics range from research application of a theoretical nature to quite practical tasks where problems have to be solved,” and he enumerates understanding the nature and functions of language, the commonalities and differences between languages, how languages evolve through time, how child language develops, how language has developed in humans, the quality of texts, variation in language, literary and poetic texts and verbal art, the relation between language and culture, language and situation, the role of language in the community and in the individual, including bilingualism, the relation between language and the brain, the languages of the Deaf, help in learning foreign languages, training translators and interpreters, diagnosing speech pathology, legal adjudication (forensic linguistics), computer software to produce and understand texts and to translate systems of speech production and reception.

Halliday, M.A.K. 1985. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold in Gramley, Stephen and Vivian Gramley. 2008. Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Magdeburg: Aisthesis Verlag.

 10. “Applied Linguistics itself may be seen as an autonomous, problem-solving disciple, concerned broadly with language (mainly, but not exclusively second language) education and language problems in society” (Steve McDonough, 2002).

Taken from Steve McDonough, 2002. Retrieved on 17th March 2013 http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/AppliedLinguistics/AppLingDefining.html

In my opinion, applied linguistics is the application of theory into practical that is used to solve problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations.

references

1. (Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

2. (Alan Davies, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory, 2nd ed. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2007)

3. G. Richard Tucker.(n.d).Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-applied.cfm

4. Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

5. Susan Hunston.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

6. Juliane House.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

7.    Phil Durrant. 2009. Retrieved on 17th March 2013 from http://www.cambridge.org/elt

8. McCarthy, Michael. 2001. Issues in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

9. Arnold in Gramley, Stephen and Vivian Gramley. 2008. Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Magdeburg: Aisthesis Verlag.

10.       Steve McDonough, 2002. Retrieved on 17th March 2013 http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/AppliedLinguistics/AppLingDefining.html

The Scope of Applied Linguistics

AL, according to Corder 1974 is “the utilization of the knowledge about the nature of language achieved by linguistics research for the improvement of the efficiency of some practical task in which language is a central component.”

 1.      Language and Teaching

Approaches & Methods

  • Grammar Translation Method (GTM) : classes are conducted in the mother tongue. This method depends on memorization of lists of new vocabulary in isolation (i.e no context provided).  Great attention is paid to grammatical rules.
  • The Series Method: Ls are exposed to a series of connected sentences (in FL) that are easy to understand.
  • The Direct Method: It depends on the oral interaction using the FL inside the classroom. It is based on the belief that language should be learned the way we learned our mother tongue.
  • The Audio-lingual Method (ALM): It is based on the idea of over-learning and repetition. New Material is presented in a form of dialogues, broken into pieces.
  • Cognitive Code Learning Method (CCL): It is a more student-oriented method as it focuses on his/her mentality and the complicated processes that take place as learning progresses.
  • The Designer Methods:
  1. Community Language Learning (CLL): It focuses on establishing interpersonal relationships between Ls in order to make the classroom a family-like environment.2.
  2. Suggestopedia: It is based on the idea that the human mind can learn anything if a suitable atmosphere (e.g: music, visuals, imagination, meditation, relaxation …) is provided.
  3. The Silent Way: It focuses on the learner’s independence. Ls should struggle to learn. Visuals are very much used to compensate for the teacher’s silence.
  4. The Total Physical Response (TPR): It is based in actions in learning new language.
  5. The Natural Approach: It focuses on how humans learn their first language unintentionally. Simple and comprehensible content is provided, getting harder as Ls goon the learning process.
  • Community Language Teaching (CLT): It focuses on helping Ls to communicate in FL by improving their communicative competence. It also pays attention to fluency, not always accuracy.
  • 2.      Language and Society

This branch is also called sociolinguistics. It studies the relationship between the society and language. It answers questions like how society affects the language, what are the varieties of a language, what the diglossic countries are, what is the relationship between language and gender, what are some examples of terms of taboo and euphemism and why they should be used, what are the social factors of language shift, why people resort to code switching, how languages die and how they are revived.

3.      Language and Education/Learning

  • 1st Language Education

In this section, linguists try to answer the question: how infants learn/ acquire their mother tongue? Parents do not teach their children to speak. They correct their falsehoods when they misbehave rather than correcting their language mistakes. First-language acquisition is innate, meaning that we are born with a set of language rules which Chomsky refers to as the Universal Grammar. These rules, Chomsky, who belongs to the Mentalists School, argues that these rules enable children to make new utterances of their own, i.e. they produce new language not only copy or repeat what they hear. Chomsky calls this idea Language Acquisition Device.

  • Additional language education- 2
    • 2nd Language Education

Second-language education is a young field that started systematically in 1950s and1960s. It is the study of how non primary language learning takes place. The SL can be used by the majority of the community, but it is not the mother tongue. For example, 232 million Indians use English along with Hindi. Unlike the innate principles of first-education, the second-language education is based on cognitive mechanism. The 1st language is acquired, whereas the 2nd language is learned.

  • Foreign language education

FL differs from the SL in that FL is not a language of communication in the learner’s country. For example, Egyptians speak English as an FL not an SL.

  • Clinical linguistics

Crystal defines clinical linguistics as “the application of the linguistic sciences to the study of language disability in all its forms” (Crystal, 2001:67

  • Language testing

“Language Testing is the practice and study of evaluating the proficiency of an individual in using a particular language effectively.” (Priscilla Allen, University of Washington) The purpose of a language test is to determine a person’s knowledge and/or ability in the language and to discriminate that person’s ability from that of others. (Alan Davies, University of Edinburgh) This branch is also called “language assessment”. This assessment may test listening reading, speaking and writing. The test pays attention to both knowledge, which is the theoretical understanding of a language and proficiency, which is the practical use of a language.

4.      Language, Work and Law

  • Workplace communication

It answers the questions what are the different techniques of communication in the workplace, what should be said in what situations at what time…etc.

  • Language planning

Language planning is bases on some principles. First of all, it is a multidimensional activity, that is to say, it should include all the communities and faculties that participate in the language planning process. Second, the idea that a nation has one language only is a myth. Third, the process of language planning should not be the responsibility of the education sector alone. Fourth, in order that this process is to be successful, there should be continuous revision, evaluation and implementation.

  • Forensic linguistics

It is defined as the application of the theory of linguistics to the law including the language of legislation and the evaluation of written evidence. Some examples of this application may be the analysis of spoken statements (confessions), analysis of court room language (lawyers, judges, witnesses) voice identification, interpretation of the language of the law and legal writings and so on.

 5.      Language, Information and Effect

  • Literary stylistics

It studies the different styles of authors. For example, one can feel the sarcastic style of the Egyptian writer Belal Fadl by only reading the title or one or two lines. We also have our own styles while speaking. The Egyptians use idiomatic expressions all the time while they speak. Nearly half of our speech is not literal.

  • (CDA) Critical Discourse Analysis

The terms Critical Linguistics (CL) and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) can be used interchangeably. CDA pays great attention to the context of the text (Wodak, 2000c; Benke,2000). CDA deals with `language as social practice’ (Fairclough and Wodak, 1997). It also considers the institutional, political, gender and media discourses. As Krings argues, CDA is the practical linking of `social and political engagement’ with `a sociologically informed construction of society’ (Krings et al., 1973: 808), while recognizing, in Fairleigh’s words `that, in human matters, interconnections and chains of cause and effect may be distorted out of vision. Hence “critique” is essentially making visible the interconnectedness of things’ (Fairclough, 1985: 747; see also Connerton, 1976: 11±39 and see below).

  • Translation and interpretation

Translation sometimes is not as easy as it is believed. Specialized translators and interpreters have more complicated task. For instance, if the text is about Genetic Engineering, a translator  should read about the topic in both languages [the source language (SL) and the target language(TL)].

Definition of Applied Linguistics

  1. Applied linguistics is an area of work that deals with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education; and it is not merely the application of linguistic knowledge to such settings but is a semi autonomous and interdisciplinary . . . domain of work that draws on but is not dependent on areas such as sociology, education, anthropology, cultural studies, and psychology.”
    (Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

 2. “Applied linguistics began life in the 1950s as a postgraduate qualification. Its initial target, largely language teaching, has always been practical, policy-oriented. Its preparation at postgraduate level has been multidisciplinary and, as in mathematics, there is a continuing tension between pure (general, theoretical) linguistics and applied linguistics. It does not expect its conclusions to be buttressed with certainty (and it is unclear whether theoretical linguistics or any other social science can expect that, either). For applied linguistics, there is no finality: the problems such as how to assess language proficiency, what is the optimum age to begin a second language, what distinguishes native and non-native speakers, how we can treat memory loss, these problems may find local and temporary solutions but the problems recur. No doubt, once again, the same may be said of theoretical linguistics: whether all grammars are fundamentally one grammar; what the relation is between the sign and the referent; answers are partial, never final the problems remain.”

(Alan Davies, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory, 2nd ed. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2007)

 3. The term ‘applied linguistics’ refers to a broad range of activities which involve solving some language-related problem or addressing some language-related concern.

G. Richard Tucker.(n.d).Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-applied.cfm

4. Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use. It embraces contexts in which people use and learn languages and is a platform for systematically addressing problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations. Applied linguistics draws on a range of disciplines, including linguistics. In consequence, applied linguistics has applications in several areas of language study, including language learning and teaching, the psychology of language processing, discourse analysis, stylistics, corpus analysis, literacy studies and language planning and policies.

Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics